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spukkato/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Don't have time to hit the gym? Try snacking -- exercise snacking, that is.

A study from Canada's McMaster University revealed that short bursts of exercise throughout your day -- particularly taking the stairs instead of the elevator -- can boost your health more than previously thought.

"Those who work in office towers or live in apartment buildings can vigorously climb a few flights of stairs in the morning, at lunch, and in the evening and know they are getting an effective workout," stated Martin Gibala, a professor of kinesiology at the university.

He added, "The findings make it even easier for people to incorporate 'exercise snacks' into their day."

Previous studies have shown that short bursts of exercise -- called sprint interval training -- can be quite beneficial to overall fitness, even if the bursts add up to just 10 minutes.

Study co-author Jonathan Little said, "We know that sprint interval training works, but we were a bit surprised to see that the stair-snacking approach was also effective."

He added, "Vigorously climbing a few flights of stairs on your coffee or bathroom break during the day seems to be enough to boost fitness in people who are otherwise sedentary."

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KatarzynaBialasiewicz/iStockBY: DR. SAUMYA DAVE

(NEW YORK) -- Whether it’s keeping track of groceries, coordinating the kids’ schedules or helping children cope with schoolwork and relationships, mothers traditionally do a lot of work that’s often unseen and can feel unappreciated.

Moms have been calling out the push-pull of work that's necessary but unappreciated and exhausting for decades. But now, researchers are calling the cognitive load of the mental and emotional labor put into running a household “invisible labor.” And it may be taking a toll on everyone in the household.

It seems that men now are more committed to creating an equal division of labor. More than ever, many men are helping with a variety of household tasks, whether that’s meal preparation, carpooling or being present for children.

Yet, traditional gender role expectations persist. Women are still reporting that they carry a majority of the burden of managing a household. In Gemma Hartley’s popular essay, “Women Aren’t Nags — We’re Just Fed Up: Emotional labor is the unpaid job men still don’t understand,” she notes, “Bearing the brunt of all this emotional labor in a household is frustrating.”

Researchers at Oklahoma State University and Arizona State University looked at the impact of invisible labor on 393 women across the United States.

All of the women included in the study were in relationships and had children under the age of 18 in their homes. Sixty-five percent of them worked outside of the home. The study had questions about the mothers’ sex lives, friendships, feelings of being overwhelmed with the parental role and more.

At least 70 percent of mothers felt more responsible for routine household tasks, being mindful of children’s emotional needs and coordinating children’s schedules.

So, how do these dynamics impact a mother’s life? And what do they mean for the long term?

“We wanted to see how much behind the scenes management was being done,” Lucia Ciciolla, Ph.D., assistant professor of psychology at Oklahoma State University and co-author of the paper, told ABC News. “And whether this might affect mothers’ well-being.”

The study found that managing the psychological needs of children was linked to women feeling less satisfied with their partners and in general. Women also reported greater feelings of emptiness and being overwhelmed with the role of being a parent.

“We were surprised to find that over 50 percent of mothers felt primarily responsible for taking care of [their] children’s well-being, whether that was managing their emotional needs or coordinating with their teachers,” Ciciolla said.

When it came to tasks that mothers felt they shared equally with their partners, two stood out: responsibility for financial planning and instilling values in children.

Even with societal changes occurring with regard to gender roles, research shows that women continue to do a majority of household work. Couples with children have been identified as having the biggest differences in sharing household work between partners.

When women take on a higher burden of household work, it impacts multiple parts of their lives. This highlights that there's still a ways to go and women need more support.

“Our findings speak to men and women,” Ciciolla said. “We encourage people to really think about invisible labor and the mental gymnastics that go with it. Mothers are disproportionately carrying this burden and feeling burnt out. Recognizing this allows steps to be taken within a marriage — within a household — for these inequalities to be addressed. When a family is informed, they can make better decisions about how to make changes.”

Being mindful of a household’s dynamics may be the key to making sure things continue to change in the right direction.

Dr. Saumya Dave is a resident physician in psychiatry in New York City and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

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Hailshadow/iStock(CLARK COUNTY, Wash.) -- Cases of measles have skyrocketed in one county in Washington state, according to public health officials.

Twenty-two cases of measles have been reported in Clark County since Jan. 1, according to the Clark County Public Health website.

The majority of cases -- 17 -- have been in children ages one to 10, county officials wrote in a report published Monday. Four people ages 11 to 18 and one person between the ages of 19 and 29 have been diagnosed, the report states. One person has been hospitalized.

Measles is a highly contagious illness with symptoms including fever, cough and rash.

Several health care facilities, schools and a church have been identified as possible locations of public exposure. The outbreak has particularly affected religious and private schools in Clark County, according to The Oregonian.

Of those diagnosed, 19 people were not vaccinated, officials said, while three of the cases have been been verified.

About 78 percent of public school students in Clark County have completed their vaccinations, Clark County Public Health director Dr. Alan Melnick said in a statement. The county has one of the worst vaccinations rates in the state, The Oregonian reported, citing state records.

The public health office is requiring students and staff without documented record of vaccination to not report to the schools identified as possible exposure sites.

Before people began being vaccinated in the early 1960s, 400 to 500 people died every year and 50,000 were hospitalized, Melnick said.

"This is completely preventable, thanks to a very effective vaccine," Melnick said. "The measles-mumps-rubella vaccine is 97 percent effective for two doses and 93 percent effective for one dose."

Clark County Council Chair Eileen Quiring declared a public health emergency on Friday in response to the outbreak. The outbreak is evolving and Clark County officials expect numbers to change.

People who may have been exposed to measles may receive a call from county officials and are encouraged to call their health care provider prior to visiting the medical office to avoid exposing others in the waiting room.

Health officials are encouraging anyone who is experiencing measles symptoms to call their health care provider before going in to avoid exposing others.

"People who believe they have symptoms of measles should not go directly to medical offices, urgent care centers or emergency departments (unless experiencing a medical emergency) without calling in advance," Clark County Public Health posted on its website.

In 2018, 349 individual cases of measles were confirmed in 26 states, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

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ABC News(NEW YORK) -- For 2019, ABC News' Good Morning America meteorologist Ginger Zee, a mother of two and avid exerciser, set a new wellness goal: to be able to do eight pull-ups and 30 push-ups in great form.

Zee started off the year able to do three pull-ups and turned to her friend and personal trainer Mark Langowski to help reach her goal in 30 days.

"Pull-ups are one of the most challenging things that a person can do with fitness," Langowski told GMA. "It's not just your arms. You're using your abs. You're using your upper back. You're using everything so you're burning the most amount of calories in a very short period of time, and that's why it's a very effective exercise."

To achieve the best results, it's important to have proper form. Here are Langowski's top tips on how to pull off the perfect pull-up and how to up your reps at the same time:

1. Pull-up vs. Chin-up

First, you should note whether you're doing a pull-up or a chin-up.

"Essentially, [with a chin-up,] you're just trying to get your chin up over the bar with your palms facing you," he explained.

"Whereas with a traditional pull-up," he said, "you still pull your chin up over the bar, [but] your hand placement is wider and palms are facing away from the face."

2. Form is key

Whether you're doing a pull-up or chin-up, the correct form is key to achieve the best results.

"The right form is going to be controlling it on the way up and the way down, so you're not swinging," Langowski explained. "The perfect pull-up is starting in a dead-hang position and then pulling your body all the way up and then releasing down."

3. Practice makes perfect

One way to improve over time is to use an elastic workout band that provides support to help you do more reps.

Over time, Langowski says you will get stronger and able to do more pull-ups without assistance. If you practice consistently, you should be able to do one more pull-up each week without using the band.

Pro Tip: To make a pull-up more challenging, place your arms farther apart.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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Rodrigo Daguerre(NEW YORK) -- At a time when many people's social media feeds are inundated with negativity, a Canadian dancer has been sharing ridiculously uplifting messages of positivity and inspiration -- accompanied by creative moves -- that have taken the internet by storm.

Donte Colley of Toronto has created a sub-genre all his own with dance videos that feature on-screen text -- messages like "You matter" and "You have a purpose" or even "You're here for a reason."

Colley told "Good Morning America" he was inspired by "nostalgic Disney and intro theme songs" in making his videos.

"I am so passionate about digital and dance that I decided to fuse these two together," he said, adding that his ultimate mission is making people smile. "I think everyone could use a boost, and I try to be that person. I, too, have low days -- sometimes the videos I post put a smile on my face too."

In some of his videos, Colley even dances alongside the text, letting followers know, "You are a star." He even reminds everyone to remember their small accomplishments, such as, "You woke up today!" and to not forget to "keep going."

"I have had close people in my life that have had struggles with their mental health. It's not fun to watch, so I had to find a way to help them get through," he told "GMA." "If I am able to help one person, that's all I could ever ask for."

The messages of unaffected positivity are being eaten up by the internet: Most of his videos have garnered hundreds of thousands of views, and the dancer's Instagram handle now has more than 340,000 followers.

His videos were even spotted by actress Jennifer Garner, who re-shared one of his videos to her 4.7 million Instagram followers, captioning it with the hashtags #wevegotthis and #keepgoing.

Colley said he hopes others are inspired and encouraged by his videos.

"Social media is an amazing platform for all of us to spread positive messages, but it often does the opposite," he said. "I hope my posts help encourage friends near and far to stay motivated about their passions and avoid comparing themselves to others. We are all different and unique."

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PeopleImages/iStock(NEW YORK) -- In our world of 24/7 communication, demands and pressure, everyone seems to always be run-down or overwhelmed.

But feelings that go even beyond that, making it hard to do even the simplest of tasks, may be a sign of burnout.

"It means we’re over-allocated," Bea Arthur, a New York City-based licensed therapist, said of how she defines burnout.

"In your mind, and perception is reality, it feels like you can’t drop any balls," she said, adding that you can visualize burnout when you think of your life as a pie chart with everything from work to kids and family taking up all the slivers of the pie.

Burnout is just a "matter of degree" difference from the chronic stress that so many people feel, according to Amy Kurtz, author of the bestselling book Kicking Sick: Your Go-To Guide for Thriving With Chronic Health Conditions.

"We’re told to always be performing at an A level but we aren’t taught, I don’t think at all, that you have to put in ways to unplug and have rituals for yourself or you will burnout," she said. "It’s an epidemic happening especially to millennials because the world is getting faster and faster."

Burnout among millennials was put in the spotlight last month in an essay written by BuzzFeed reporter Anne Helen Petersen, who described how she could excel in her job and some parts of her personal life but felt paralyzed in others.

"I’d put something on my weekly to-do list, and it’d roll over, one week to the next, haunting me for months," Peterson wrote of what she labeled "errand paralysis."

"They are seemingly high-effort, low-reward tasks, and they paralyze me," she wrote.

Ann Shoket, author of The Big Life, said the millennial women she meets are often fixated on small things that distract from their bigger lives.

"The kind of burnout I'm seeing is a fixation on little things making high-achieving, high-performing women with passion projects and side hustles feel overwhelmed," she said. "We feel ashamed that we can’t keep up. To say that's what embarrasses us, it puts us in a dark corner."

Other signs of burnout can include insomnia, chronic fatigue, difficulty concentrating, apathy, irritability, anxiety and getting sick more often.

While burnout is not a medical diagnosis, it can have physical consequences that include everything from respiratory problems to gastrointestinal issues, according to ABC News chief medical correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton.

Are you suffering from burnout?

There are four questions you can ask yourself to determine if you are suffering from burnout, explained Ashton.

Rate yourself on each question below using a number one through four, with one being never, two sometimes, three often and four always. Then total your points from all four questions.

1. How often are you tired and lacking energy to go to work in the morning?

2. How often do you feel physically drained, like your batteries are dead?

3. How often is your thinking process sluggish or your concentration impaired?

4. How often do you feel emotionally detached from co-workers (or customers) and unable to be sensitive to their needs?

If you scored less than nine, you are not suffering from burnout.

If you scored between a 10 and 12, you are on the verge of burnout.

If you scored between a 13 and a 16, you are suffering full-on burnout.

How to help burnout

It is up to you to make changes in your life in order to prioritize yourself, experts say.

"Be intentional and force yourself to stop if you’re living on one of these never-ending rides," Arthur said. "It’s not going to stop for a while or just fix itself, so you have to do it."

Arthur recommends starting by removing the urgency from things in your life that are truly not urgent.

"You know what is urgent in your life, like seeing your family and friends more," said Arthur, who tries not to answer work-related emails and calls past 7 p.m. because she knows, in her work, nothing tragic is going to happen if she answers in the morning.

She also schedules her vacations three and six months in advance, which lets her know that she can take a pause.

"Even if the work is still there when you get back from vacation, you’ll come back better," she said.

Shoket recommends being intentional about the type of self-care you give yourself.

"I don't mean get a mani[cure] and facial," she said. "It’s about putting yourself first once in a while. Turn off your phone. Leave work at a reasonable hour. Draw boundaries between your life and your work that allow you to succeed in both.”

Accepting that your life can be big and messy is also good way to move forward, noted Shoket.

"You have to embrace the mess," she said. "Don't get caught up in the idea that things have to be perfect or there has to be a balance. A big, ambitious hungry life is a messy life."

Kurtz, also a health and wellness coach, works with her clients to "flip the script" on burnout by establishing personal rituals.

The rituals Kurtz recommends include everything from practicing meditation to getting exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting proper rest and setting boundaries on your apps and phone.

She also stresses the importance of saying no.

"If its not a heck yes, its a heck no," Kurtz said. "If you’re not totally jazzed about doing something, just say no."

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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BrianAJackson/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Starting 2019 on the right foot can quickly lead to foot pain if the shoes you're working out in are not right.

Whether you are running, cross-training or weight lifting, comfort is key, according to Stephanie Blozy, the owner of a Fleet Feet Sports store in West Hartford, Connecticut.

"If the shoe feels comfortable on your foot, it’s probably going to be less likely to cause injury down the road," she said.

Rebecca Kennedy, master tread instructor at Peloton, which launched its at-home tread workouts last year, said women need to be savvy shoe shoppers to feel and look their best.

"The shoe is the barrier between your foot and whatever surface you’re on, so it has the potential to do a lot of good or be detrimental," she said. "If you choose something that’s not right for your foot or the way you move, then you’re going to be susceptible to injury."

Here are eight tips from Kennedy and Blozy on finding the perfect shoe:.

1. Try on more than one shoe so you know what you like and don't like.

2. Buy workout shoes in a half size bigger than your everyday shoe, like a heel, because your feet will swell and expand during exercise.

3. When you find a shoe that fits, try it in a half size bigger and a half size smaller to make sure you have the right size.

4. Don't be swayed by color or price. Go for the shoe that is comfortable, not the one that is best looking. Expect to pay around $120 for a great running shoe.

5. Go to a store that will fit you for a shoe instead of trying to sell you one. "There are plenty of running stores that will get you up on a tread and film your gate and put you in several different brands and sizes and widths to determine what is best," said Kennedy.

6. Buy more than one pair of sneakers, ideally from different brands, so you can rotate them, giving the shoes time to dry after workouts and your feet a chance to use different muscles.

7. Pick a shoe based on your activity, so if you run more than two miles in a workout, you should be in a running shoe. If you are doing a HIIT and strength class, like OrangeTheory, wear a cross-training shoe that is closer to the ground and has more flexibility.

8. Replace your running shoes at least every 300 to 500 miles. "I like to just turn [my shoes] over and see where the wear and tear is, how much of the cushion has gone away, does it seem like I’m running on pavement," Kennedy said.

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(NEW YORK) -- Can a dog’s nose save a diabetic’s life? Man’s best friends are known to sniff out bombs, drugs and even bedbugs, but can they smell trouble for type 1 diabetics?

A new study done in the U.K. shows that the diabetic “alert” dogs were able to detect 70 percent of episodes of abnormal blood sugar -- incidents that can be dangerous, even deadly, for type 1 diabetics.

How do they do it?

Dogs that are noted to have a better sense of smell, such as golden retrievers, than their counterparts are the ones chosen for training. They use this highly sensitive sense to sniff out changes in the blood that occur when blood sugar becomes too low or too high. Doctors know that when blood sugar becomes too high, for example, it causes a chemical reaction in the blood that creates a fruity or sweet odor on their breath. Doctors may not always be able to smell it, but dogs can -- since their sense of smell is 40 times greater than ours. They can also pick up the scent from sweat and skin.

How are they trained?

The dogs are trained for months to years with positive reinforcement. To the puppy, it’s “play” with a reward for success. The training can then be personalized. For instance, saliva is collected when a diabetic’s blood sugar is nearing the lower range of normal.

The dogs learn that particular scent and how to alert their humans. Typically, they tap their partners with a paw or nose, place their paws on the partner’s shoulders, or any other signal that the two decide on. This prompts the diabetic to check his or her blood sugar and do what’s needed to correct it before it becomes an emergency. The dog and the diabetic both must undergo weeks of training together so that they can work as a team.

Why were the studies done in type 1 diabetics only?

Type 2 diabetes is much more common; it’s the disorder that many acquire later in life, and can be treated with diet, exercise and medication. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that can occur at any time in life when a person’s immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Since people with type 1 diabetes can’t make the insulin, they need to control their blood sugar and inject themselves with insulin. That means they are more prone to large fluctuations in blood sugar.

Extremely low or high blood sugar can have frightening symptoms: shaking, sweating, blurry vision, dizziness, seizures and a fast heart rate. This is the body’s way of alerting the brain that something is wrong and the person needs to act quickly. Without immediate treatment, the person will die.

Some diabetics, however, do not have any symptoms. This “hypoglycemia unawareness” is even more dangerous. With no signal that the blood sugar is abnormal, they can’t know to take action. This is where the diabetic alert dog comes in.

How much do they cost?

The process of training and pairing with a dog can be long and expensive. Some groups breed these service dogs for a profit, and others train strays at no charge. The cost from a not-for-profit can be inexpensive or even free, but the waiting list can be two to five years long. Otherwise, a trained dog can cost an average of $20,000. Medical insurance does not typically cover this cost.

A service dog can be a wonderful asset to a type 1 diabetic’s life. Sniffing out a medical problem can’t replace regular blood sugar monitoring, but it’s a sweet and lifesaving addition.

Dr. Azka Afzal is a resident physician at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

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Tero Vesalainen/iStockBY: DR. TIFFANY TRUONG

(WASHINGTON) -- Federal approval of a highly anticipated breast cancer drug was delayed by the Food and Drug Administration this week.

The drug, sacituzumab govitecan, which is produced by Immunomedics, was previously designated a "breakthrough therapy" by the FDA “based on preliminary evidence that it demonstrates substantial improvement over existing therapies for a life threatening disease.”

According to Michael Pehl, president and CEO of Immunomedics, the reason the medication was not approved for wide availability was due to “issues...exclusively focused on chemistry, manufacturing and control matters” and that “no new clinical or preclinical data need[s] to be generated.”

He added, “We are going to request a meeting with the FDA as soon as possible … with the goal of bringing this important medicine to patients as soon as possible.”

Dr. Kevin Kalinsky, an assistant professor of medicine at New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Columbia University Medical Center, led the research for the use of sacituzumab in "triple negative" stage IV breast cancer.

This cancer grows and spreads faster than most other types of breast cancer, according to the American Cancer Society.

“We call [sacituzumab] a ‘smart drug’ because it is like a GPS that hones directly to the cancer, able to deliver high doses of chemotherapy right to it," Kalinsky said.

“The response rate of other chemotherapy medications for this most advanced stage of breast cancer is often less than 20 percent when [patients] have already tried other drugs,” he added.

Kalinsky said 30 percent of cancer patients' tumors decreased in size after taking sacituzumab. The change lasted about eight months.

One of Kalinsky’s patients, Renee Seman, 41, from Long Island, New York, has had success with this innovative medication.

In 2014 Seman was diagnosed with stage IV breast cancer. She was 37 and a new mother. No other therapies were working on her cancer when she met Kalinsky.

“I responded very well to the first chemotherapy medication, but I had to stop it because I couldn’t tolerate one of the side effects -- severe joint pain," Seman told ABC News. "My daughter was 10 months old at that time and it made it too difficult to pick her up, carry her and get her in and out of her car seat. It was affecting my ability to parent."

"I didn’t want to have the side effect of that chemotherapy,” she added.

She tried several other therapies before she enrolled in a smaller trial which tested sacituzumab in people with stage IV non-triple negative breast cancer. While on it, her cancer remained stable for one year.

Seman experienced side effects of hair loss and fatigue but was still able to spend time with her family and even started running marathons while on chemotherapy. Five years later, she remains hopeful, though she did have to switch to a different chemotherapy when her cancer grew again. She is now gearing up for her 5th and 6th marathons in Tokyo and London.

Kalinksky said people on sacituzumab do not develop standard chemotherapy side effects like severe numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.

"This is called neuropathy, and it can really impact their quality of life and limit the use of these drugs," he explained. "We don’t really see this side effect with sacituzumab. They might develop diarrhea, fatigue and hair loss, but not neuropathy.”

When asked about FDA approval of sacituzumab, Seman said that she is “really excited because if it can help people like it can help me, its approval can make it available to so many people who might benefit from it.”

Although FDA approval has been delayed there are still many clinical trials available at these locations.

Dr. Tiffany Truong is a resident physician in internal medicine in Houston, and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

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Rhiannon Lindley(WASHINGTON) -- A woman who was diagnosed with cancer months after giving birth has received thousands of ounces in breast milk donations from fellow moms she's never met.

Rhiannon Lindley, 27, recently put a call out on her Facebook page asking for milk donations and the response "blew her away."

"It's hard to describe how wonderful it really is, all these women taking the time to feed my child," Lindley of Springfield, Missouri, told "Good Morning America." "She's strong and beautiful and healthy because of them."

Lindley is a nurse, caregiver to her brother Jesse and mom to Adelaide, 1, Ezra, 2, Madalyn, 4, and Dani, 6. She said she was diagnosed with leukemia on Jan. 26, 2018.

At the time, doctors gave her a startling prognosis of three to four months to live, according to Lindley.

"Being told I only had a few months to take care of my children, my brother and my husband, I didn't accept it," Lindley said. "But being so horribly sick...I thought I was going to die. One night I was in the hospital, I sent a video home to my children and my husband saying goodbye, which was really hard."

Lindley said she was transferred to Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, where she received chemo until November 2018, when she was released.

Mothers cannot breastfeed while receiving chemotherapy. The drugs are dangerous for nursing babies because "they interfere with the normal, healthy division of cells in the body," according to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

Although Lindley is now considered in remission, she must take chemo for the rest of her life, she said. Lindley breastfed all four of her children but said she had to stop at her youngest when she started chemo.

"I know all the medical benefits to breastfeeding, but for her it's also a comfort," Lindley said. "I didn't want her to have to give that up. Being sick I tried to keep things as normal as possible for my children."

Lindley started out small by reaching out to moms in her area who donated their breast milk. Then on Jan. 8, she shared a public Facebook post in hopes of expanding on her request, writing, "She has been drinking donor milk since my leukemia diagnosis and subsequent start of chemotherapy...If you know anyone willing to donate, please connect us!"

The post was shared nearly 9,000 times and Lindley said she received thousands of ounces of milk donations.

Stephanie Payne, a mom from Phillipsburg, Missouri, said she first met Lindley in March 2018 through mutual friends.

One month prior, Payne was pregnant with a little boy whom she named Ellison Isaiah, but during a Feb. 23 checkup, doctors could not find Ellison's heartbeat. Payne was induced, but Ellison did not survive.

Payne wanted to help fulfill Lindley's request, so she donated 250 ounces of her own breast milk.

"It's such a comfort to me after [Ellison's] loss knowing that I was able to give all of my milk to her," Payne, 25, told "GMA." "That's probably been the biggest blessing is seeing her daughter grow and thrive with the help of my son."

Payne has a 3-year-old son and is expecting a daughter. She hopes to donate more breast milk to a mom in need, she said.

Lindley said she's received donations ranging from 3 ounces to 600 ounces.

"Women who have that big of a heart and care enough about my baby and my family to do that," Lindley said, "I don't even know how to thank them enough."

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noipornpan/iStock(NEW YORK) -- How is a man supposed to act? What is masculinity and when does it become toxic? And how should psychologists approach the concept of masculinity when seeing patients?

These are questions an increasing number of psychologists must consider as dialogue around toxic masculinity, sexual abuse and harassment and the #MeToo movement continues across the country.

Most recently, an ad for the razor company Gillette prompted many men to throw away their Gillette products in a defensive protest. The ad asked men to be better, to stand against toxic masculinity and stop excusing sexual harassment, bullying and fighting as “boys will be boys.”

The ad was released just days after the American Psychological Association (APA) published new guidelines that are meant to help mental health professionals with treating boys and men. They are the latest in a series of guideline updates from the APA dating back to the 1960s, and were not a direct response to the #MeToo movement.

Although the guidelines aren’t intended for the general public, they generated their own controversy after an accompanying APA article said that “traditional masculinity — marked by stoicism, competitiveness, dominance and aggression — is, on the whole, harmful.”

In a tweet linking back to the article, the APA added that these claims were supported by “more than 40 years of research showing that traditional masculinity is psychologically harmful and that socializing boys to suppress their emotions causes damage.”

ABC News spoke to Ryan McKelley, Ph.D., a professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin and president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity, the division of the APA that published the guidelines. Here's what he had to say about them:

The guidelines are not 'anti-masculinity.' The APA's view is more nuanced.

McKelley said that the APA’s tweet was viewed as a definitive stance against masculinity, when the APA actually sees masculinity as multifaceted.

“Unfortunately, when the guidelines came out, the tweet said something about traditional masculinity being harmful, and what we saw was that people latched onto that. ... It got out of hand,” he said.

Leadership abilities, confidence, assertiveness and courage. These are all aspects of traditional masculinity that are positive, healthy and pro-social in most circumstances, McKelley said. However, he also said that when these qualities are taken to their extremes -- like many other behaviors and attitudes -- they can cause problems.

Men should also be able to express their emotions more freely, he added. Those who aren’t able to might find themselves acting out harmfully.

“Rigid emotional inexpression, a rigid belief that aggression and violence are ways to solve problems or a rigid belief that you can’t show weakness or ask for help. The men and boys who adhere to these extreme stereotypical attitudes are the ones at most risk for physical, psychological and social problems,” McKelley said.

He emphasized that masculinity isn’t under attack, but also said that “in a perfect world, we wouldn’t describe traits as belonging to one gender or another, because all of these things...all humans experience [them].”

The controversy distracts from real medical and mental health challenges that boys and men face.

Men are more likely to die from cancer and cardiovascular disease than women are, and it’s likely because they aren’t seeing doctors for preventive screenings as much as women, McKelley said, noting that this could be because they are taught to appear strong and that they shouldn’t ask for help when a problem comes their way.

That same train of thought -- in which men suppress their needs and emotions -- might also contribute to the higher rates of suicide among men when compared to women in the U.S.

“That is a public health problem. Men are less likely to seek help along the way or earlier on in the process, so it becomes the last, final resort of overwhelming emotional pain,” McKelley said.

Additionally, more men are perpetrators of violence than women and men are more likely to die by murder than women, McKelley said.

“If some boys and men are socialized to respond to conflicts or extreme emotional stress by reacting with aggression and violence, that puts themselves and others at risk,” he said.

The guidelines are intended to help clinicians adapt to a variety of issues and needs in men.

They are designed to help psychologists think about men in more complex ways and talk to their clients about things they might not have been trained in or thought about before, McKelley said.

“It’s important to recognize that certain masculine traits can be helpful in some situations, but harmful in others," he said. "For example, stoicism and a tough demeanor might help someone who is in a crisis situation, like a first responder… But those same qualities can destroy a romantic relationship. We are encouraging psychologists to think about how to support men in more adaptive ways.”

Like all humans, men are complex. The guidelines, McKelley said, recognize that there are both men who have high amounts of privilege and men who are struggling, men who are overworked and men who experience consistent racial discrimination, bias and oppression.

The guidelines offer psychologists ways to “understand that complexity and open traditional conversation, or ways to think about some of the problems that men and boys face,” he said.

Many men, for example, might not realize that they have depression because of societal expectations to not talk about their feelings.

"If a man comes into my office and says, 'I don't feel right,' and he doesn't look like a classic clinical representation of depression… If I don't pay attention to other ways he might be experiencing distress, such as overworking, substance use, or irritability, I could miss the depression," McKelley said. "The guidelines say, 'If you've got a male client, here are some things to consider.'"

Although the guidelines are for psychologists, there are other organizations working to help men directly.

The Men's Story Project, founded by public health researcher and educator Jocelyn Lehrer, is an organization that uses storytelling and community dialogue to explore ideas around masculinity.

Lehrer told ABC News that she started the organization because she felt that many of society's problems, such as violence, bullying and sexual health, were being impacted by the ways that boys and men are taught about masculinity.

After meeting many boys who had been negatively affected by toxic masculinity -- both as the aggressors and as the victims -- she told ABC News that “people have to realize, they’re not alone.”

The Men’s Story Project allows men to share their personal stories with each other and live audiences and then have a group discussion about them. Representatives in the audience are also available to connect people with resources that pertain to the topics discussed.

"Masculinity is a socially made construct. People tend to learn attitudes and behaviors from peers and role models,” Lehrer said, and her organization offers opportunities for men and boys to do that.

Her organization gives men and boys the opportunity to meet role models who can teach them new ways to cope with their emotions, and she said that since she started the Men’s Story Project in 2008, many other groups have popped up across the U.S. and the world. They are making a positive impact.

One participant at the Men’s Story Project, for example, told Lehrer that the project had made him realize he wasn’t the only man having trouble understanding his masculinity. Another one told her about how he learned that “being a man” doesn’t have to be defined in any specific way.

“I learned more about gender identity and how fluid that can be,” he said, “and I learned more about what it means to be a man, and not the type of man that society has created.”

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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ABC News(NEW YORK) -- The Kardashian family is known for their famous curves and there are plenty of fans who want to achieve similar looks.

So when Khloé Kardashian shared some "booty" secrets on her former blog -- crediting kettlebell weights, a boss balance trainer and The DB Method Machine for her figure -- ABC News had to investigate.

The DB Method Machine is "a booty sculptor that you can easily fold up and store out of sight??? Yassss, please!” she wrote enthusiastically to her followers.

What is The DB Method?

The DB Method is a machine that "sets the body in the correct form to do the perfect modified squat," according to the company's website.

Squats are a standard workout move that targets the glutes. The company says the device's "patented design is revolutionary because it shifts your body's center of gravity, setting your body in the correct position to activate and effectively target the primary muscle of the glutes — the gluteus maximus, the muscle responsible for a toned, tight and lifted butt."

Founder Erika Rayman told ABC News' Good Morning America that she came up with the idea for The DB Method after working with a trainer to target her glutes. Realizing there wasn’t an at-home machine for it, she said she "decided to invent it" herself.

Rayman said she designed it to build “toned legs, a lifted rounder booty and a flatter stomach.”

The DB Method can also give you a full body workout, she explained: "Not only is it a squat machine to get your dream butt, but you can use the machine to work your arms, your abs, your obliques, your chest, it’s a full body workout machine in your living room."

With just 10 minutes a day for 30 days, Rayman said you should be able to see noticeable results.

GMA Day producer Dani Kipp tried out the DB Method for 30 days.

She said she "definitely noticed a difference" and she plans to keep using the machine.

Despite Dani's results, personal trainer Mark Langowski, CEO of Body by Mark Wellness, told GMA that you can achieve similar results without buying a machine like this, which costs $299.

"It is absolutely 100 percent possible to get a great booty without the use of machines like this one," Langowski told GMA.

Langowski said squats, lunges and deadlifts will also build the muscles in your lower body. And if you want to imitate the position that the machine puts your body in, hold onto something that's fixed into place.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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zeljkosantrac/iStock(NEW YORK) -- As anyone who has ever worked in a fast food -- or any -- restaurant can tell you, the smell of unhealthy food can put you off the stuff.

Scientists have now confirmed that a great way to fight your craving for fries, pizza and other junk food is to be exposed to the smell of the stuff for a few minutes.

The study, conducted by scientists at the University of Florida and published in the Journal of Marketing Research, used a series of experiments where people of various ages were exposed to the smell of junk food -- specifically, pizza and cookies -- or alternatively, healthy foods, like strawberries and apples.

Some of the test subjects were students, and the scents were piped in through a cafeteria. Other subjects were in a supermarket.

In every case, the test subjects that got a whiff of the junk food made better choices when it came to buying food. Those who smelled the healthier stuff craved the guilty pleasures.

The findings were backed up by the same experiments conducted in a lab.  

"Ambient scent can be a powerful tool to resist cravings for indulgent foods," says lead author Dipayan Biswas, in a release. "In fact, subtle sensory stimuli like scents can be more effective in influencing children’s and adults’ food choices than restrictive policies" -- like diets or mandated healthy school lunches.

The study's authors added, "In essence, if reward structures and areas representing craving in the brain can be satisfied with olfactory inputs instead of actual gustatory consumption of unhealthy foods, this can help with fighting food urges."

In other words, if you're hungry at 3 a.m., instead of ordering pizza, try standing outside a Domino's and just inhaling for five minutes.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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Pixel_away/iStock(SADDLE BROOK, N.J.) -- Two patients from a New Jersey surgical center have tested positive for hepatitis, their attorney said Thursday.

The HealthPlus Surgery Center in Saddle Brook warned thousands of patients last month about potential exposure to dangerous infections after what it called a “lapse in infection control.”

Attorney Michael Maggiano said one of his clients is a patient who tested positive for hepatitis A and the other client is a patient who tested positive for hepatitis B. Both are a blood-borne diseases that can cause serious liver damage if left untreated. Neither strain is immediately deadly but can lead to rare, delayed health consequences.

"All of these people are suffering shame, embarrassment, humiliation, given the news they received over the holidays," Maggiano said at a news conference.

The infections may have come from the lapse in infection control. There are medical laboratory tests that can be done to help indicate whether an infection is more recently acquired or present for a longer time.

There are now at least three patients that have indicated they contracted hepatitis at the facility and that their attorneys were preparing lawsuits, though according to a statement on Thursday from a Healthplus spokesman, “No reported infection is attributable to an exposure at HealthPlus that we know of.”

More than 3,000 patients who underwent a procedure at the HealthPlus center between January and September of 2018 may have been exposed to HIV and hepatitis, the New Jersey Department of Health said last month. Officials urged them to get a blood test. Most of the 3,778 patients possibly exposed are from New York and New Jersey.

Maggiano filed a lawsuit against HealthPlus alleging negligent care but said he has not yet received a response. There are other lawsuits pending in different jurisdictions.

The HealthPlus Surgery Center did not immediately respond to ABC News' request for comment.

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Remains/iStock(NEW YORK) -- The World Health Organization (WHO) has named people who oppose vaccination among the top 10 "threats to global health" this year.

"Vaccine hesitancy -- the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines -- threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-preventable diseases," such as measles, polio and cervical cancer, the WHO, the global public health arm of the United Nations, said in a list released this week.

"Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways of avoiding disease," the WHO said. "It currently prevents 2 to 3 million deaths a year, and a further 1.5 million could be avoided if global coverage of vaccinations improved."

Vaccine hesitancy is a complex global issue; but complacency, inconvenience in accessing vaccines and lack of confidence are the key underlying reasons, according to a vaccines advisory group to the WHO.

An estimated 100,000 young children have not been vaccinated against any of the 14 potentially serious diseases for which vaccines are recommended, according to a report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in October. Although most children are routinely vaccinated, the number of children who have received no vaccines by age 2 has been gradually increasing.

The WHO has vowed to ramp up work this year to eliminate cervical cancer worldwide by increasing coverage of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. The agency said 2019 may also be the year when transmission of wild poliovirus stops in Afghanistan and Pakistan, which are two of only three countries in the world where the highly infectious disease remains endemic and which have come agonizingly close to zero cases.

Meanwhile, polio has been eradicated in the United States since 1979 due to widespread vaccination nationwide, according to the CDC.

The WHO also deemed air pollution and climate change another top threat to global health this year. Nine out of 10 people breathe polluted air every day, according to the agency, which said it considers air pollution "the greatest environmental risk to health" in 2019.

Microscopic pollutants in the air can penetrate the lungs and enter the blood stream, damaging the lungs, heart and brain. An estimated 7 million people die prematurely each year due to exposure to these fine particles in polluted air that lead to diseases such as cancer, stroke, heart disease and lung disease, according to the WHO.

"Around 90 percent of these deaths are in low- and middle-income countries, with high volumes of emissions from industry, transport and agriculture, as well as dirty cookstoves and fuels in homes," the agency said.

The main cause of air pollution -- the burning of fossil fuels -- is also a major factor in climate change, which is detrimental to people's health as well.

"Between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause 250,000 additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and heat stress," the WHO said.

Ebola virus disease, which causes an often-fatal type of hemorrhagic fever, was also on the WHO's list of 10 threats to global health in 2019.

The Democratic Republic of Congo saw two separate Ebola outbreaks last year that both spread to major cities. The second outbreak began in August in the eastern part of the nation, just a week after one in the country's west was declared over.

The latest outbreak is ongoing and has become the second-largest, second-deadliest Ebola outbreak in history. One of the outbreak's hot spots where people are infected is in an active conflict zone.

"This shows that the context in which an epidemic of a high-threat pathogen like Ebola erupts is critical," the WHO said. "What happened in rural outbreaks in the past doesn’t always apply to densely populated urban areas or conflict-affected areas."

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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